Tom's Carnivores

How to Grow Pitcher Plants
The Sarracenia Care Guide

North American pitcher plants have it all: fearsomely efficient flycatchers and easy for beginners to grow, the eight species of Sarracenia are bizarre and beautiful.

Most have tall, narrow pitchers which attract insects with bright colours and inviting scents. Visitors are forced into perilous positions by waxy surfaces or tricked by transparent leaves, while nectar laced with poison intoxicates them. Those who slip and tumble down the pitcher are trapped by downward-pointing hairs and quickly digested by the plant's own enzymes.

Sarracenia - also known as trumpet pitchers - are mostly found on the southeastern coastal plains of North America, and grow in sunny, open wetlands. The greatest diversity can be found in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina, although one species extends north along the east coast into the Upper Midwest and Canada. Sarracenia populations have declined rapidly in recent years due to drainage of their habitats for housing developments. Some species are now critically endangered.

This guide will cover essentials of cultivation, from water and soil to feeding and dormancy. To successfully grow these magnificent plants - and to understand the issues surrounding their conservation - the best place to start is with their natural habitat.

Where does Sarracenia grow?

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Notes: Map data sourced from McPherson & Schnell's 2011 monograph Sarraceniaceae of North America, the USDA PLANTS Database, and Barry Rice's website. Non-native species (e.g. any planted in California) have been omitted. If you spot any mistakes, please click here to send me an email.

The Sarracenia Species

There are currently 8 recognised species of Sarracenia (taxonomic controversy aside!). These are S. alata, S. flava, S. leucophylla, S. minor, S. oreophila, S. psittacina, S. purpurea, and S. rubra. Each species varies considerably and some are further divided into subspecies, but for a general primer, check out the gallery below.

All eight species of Sarracenia, the North American pitcher plant: alata, flava, leucophylla, minor, oreophila, psittacina, purpurea, and rubra.
Left to right, top then bottom: alata, flava, leucophylla, minor, oreophila, psittacina, purpurea, and rubra.

North American pitcher plants are unusual in that all species can be hybridised, and that these crosses result in fertile offspring. In other words, Sarracenia taxonomy involves a fascinating mixture of complex hybrids, backcrosses and cultivars, many of which are extraordinarily beautiful.

Unsurprisingly, many hybrids occur naturally in the wild and were once given names as if they were species. S. × catesbaei, for example, is a hybrid between S. flava and S. purpurea. The vigour often exhibited by hybrids is another reason why hybrids - along with the super-hardy S. purpurea! - are frequently recommended to first-time growers. I sell some very tolerant pitcher plant hybrids in my shop, including the famously beautiful cultivar Sarracenia ‘Judith Hindle’, as well as Sarracenia seeds.

For more detail on individual species, hybrids and cultivars, check out the resources list at the end of this guide.

Where to grow pitcher plants

Sarracenia require full direct sun. As such, they are candidates for only the brightest of windowsills - a lack of direct sunlight will cause your plants to become weak and poorly-coloured. If you wish to try windowsill growing, your best bet is a smaller species like S. purpurea or a hybrid involving it (such as the aforementioned Sarracenia ‘Maroon’).

Terrariums are generally unsuitable. While seedlings can thrive in a terrarium, you will struggle to provide the light intensity required by adult plants. Remember too that erect species like S. leucophylla can reach almost a meter tall!

Generally, Sarracenia grow best in unheated greenhouses and conservatories. They are quite temperature tolerant, with conditions in their natural habitats frequently reaching 32°C (90°F) during summer. While some can be grown outside year-round in the UK - in a bog garden, for example - the taller species don’t always cope well with strong winds, and as such are better suited to growing behind glass.

Winter dormancy & division

All North American pitcher plants require a cold winter dormancy between November and February. Temperatures in their natural habitats regularly dip below freezing over winter (0°C / 32°F), and so you must provide a cold season for plants in cultivation.

If you keep your plants indoors during the growing season, you will need to move them somewhere colder - sit them next to a window in your shed or garage, for example. Plants growing in an unheated greenhouse can remain there over winter. For year-round outdoor growing (i.e. exposure to the elements), species occurring further north - S. purpurea, S. flava and their hybrids - are generally the hardiest in UK weather.

Sarracenia purpurea and its many hybrids, growing in a greenhouse during summer.
Sarracenia purpurea and its many hybrids, growing in a greenhouse during summer.

As the days shorten and the temperature drops, pitchers will turn brown and your plant will start to die back. This is normal, and you can safely trim off any dead growth. Some Sarracenia will also produce flat, non-carnivorous leaves called phyllodia during autumn; these will often last throughout winter.

The end of the winter dormancy period is a good opportunity to repot - and even divide - your plants, if they require it. A 12cm (4.5 inch) pot is sufficient for adult plants. Sarracenia grow from a rhizome, which is a thick underground stem that sprouts roots and leaves. Large adult plants will often have multiple growth points on their rhizome, and by snapping the rhizome and potting the pieces separately, you can propagate multiple (genetically identical) plants! Check out this guide by Phil Wilson for some helpful photos and a detailed tutorial.

Water & soil for pitcher plants

Like many other carnivorous plants, Sarracenia require rainwater or distilled/deionised water, and lots of it! This is because they grow in low-nutrient waterlogged soil, and evolved to draw minerals from prey instead. As such, you must avoid tap water, bottled water and filtered water - all will result in a build-up of minerals and cause your plant’s health to deteriorate. You should avoid fertiliser for similar reasons. I’ve outlined your options for obtaining water in more detail here.

During the growing season, you should stand your plants’ pots in about 2cm of water (just under an inch) and avoid watering from the top. During winter, the soil should be kept just damp, rather than wet.

The traditional compost mixture for Sarracenia is sphagnum peat moss mixed with either lime-free horticultural sand or perlite, to a ratio of about 2:1. You can buy bags of ready-made Sarracenia compost directly from my online shop.

What to feed Sarracenia

Kept outside, Sarracenia will catch more than enough food for themselves. The taller trumpet species such as S. flava and S. leucophylla are particularly ruthless, and often fill to the brim with flies, wasps, ants, and moths by the end of the growing season.

If you keep your plants indoors, you can hand feed them with dried insects every few weeks. The foods I’ve recommended for Venus flytraps are all suitable, but dried crickets are particularly good.

The beautiful flowers of Sarracenia.
The beautiful flowers of Sarracenia.

If you’re interested in flowers & pollination, seed propagation, hybridisation, or any of the more advanced areas of cultivation, I’ve listed some recommended resources and expert blogs below. This list is obviously not comprehensive!

If you’re looking to buy a pitcher plant, I suggest you check out my online shop.